I GOT SWD IN MY MONITORING TRAPS, SHOULD I SPRAY MY CROP RIGHT AWAY?
There is now consensus among researchers that if monitoring traps detect the presence of SWD, commercial producers of highly susceptible small fruit crops should start spraying insecticide against SWD as soon as the first fruit become susceptible (i.e., color change) about about 2 to 3 weeks before cherry or berry harvest, depending on weather. A second application may be needed 7 to 10 days later. In the case of indeterminate fruiting berries such as raspberries or strawberries, sprays might need to be repeated to keep SWD populations low during summer and fall. Continue to use monitoring traps to help you decide if and when additional sprays might be needed. Be sure to wait the interval specified on the pesticide label (= Pre-Harvest Interval or PHI) before harvesting fruit.
IMPORTANT: Timing and good coverage are key components of an IPM program against SWD. Insecticide sprays need to be in place prior to oviposition (egg laying), and coverage needs to be thorough as the adults often hide in the denser portions of the canopy. So, high pressure and spray volume will be needed to reach these difficult-to-reach spots and provide thorough coverage. Even the best of the insecticides will not consistently last more than 7 days so, at a minimum, weekly applications are needed. Producers must rotate among insecticides with different modes of action (IRAC Group) to prevent/delay resistance. With a limited number of modes of action available, we cannot afford to lose the effectiveness of materials to insecticide resistance.
SWD DETECTED IN 14 MISSOURI COUNTIES. As of 07/07/14, SWD has already been detected in 15 out of the 25 locations where Lincoln University and Univ. of Missouri Extension staff are monitoring for this pest. Dr. Don Johnson, Professor and Entomologist at the Univ. of Arkansas, has seen an increase in SWD egg-laying in blackberry this week and as a result has alerted farmers about the need to spray insecticides. To access the newest Issue of AR Fruit and Nut News click here.
The following map shows the current distribution of SWD in Missouri (prepared by Dr. Joe LaForest, University of Georgia):
SWD FOUND IN WEST CENTRAL MO. On June 26th, one female SWD was captured by a trap deployed on blackberries in the Higginsville area. This is the fourth location in MO where SWD has been detected. It is time to deploy monitoring traps!
HOME-OWNER INSECTICIDAL OPTIONS FOR SWD. Cornell University has put together a nice table listing the insecticides (pages 3-5 in that article) that home-owners can use to control SWD in backyard gardens. Access the table by clicking here.
PEST ALERT IN CENTRAL MISSOURI: SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CAPTURED BY MONITORING TRAPS
On June 23rd, 2014, five females and one male SWD were retrieved from a monitoring trap deployed in Marshall, MO. Small fruit farmers in this region are advised to monitor for this pest in their own orchards and to start protecting their fruit with an insecticide if susceptible fruits are available. Monitoring, pest ID, and timely application of insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management program for this invasive vinegar fly. If you are interested in monitoring for SWD at your farm, free traps and bait (purchased using funds provided by a grant from the Missouri Department of Agriculture to the Lincoln University IPM program) are available. They can be mailed at no cost to you. Please contact Mr. Jacob Wilson at: firstname.lastname@example.org or call (573-681-5591).
On June 17th, 2 male and 1 female SWD were detected in a yeast-baited monitoring trap in Hillsboro, MO. The trap was deployed on a fruiting mulberry tree. Fruit samples were taken and larval infestations that can be attributed to SWD were found. This is the first report of larval infestations in any fruit in Missouri for the 2014 growing season.
The above information and additional SWD trap-capture data are available at the Univ. of Missouri IPM Pest Monitoring Network.
RECEIVE SWD E-MAIL ALERTS: If you would like to receive e-mail alerts whenever SWD is found in your region, please go to the above link . Then, click on the tab “Subscribe E-mail Alerts”, type your name and e-mail address and select the pests (SWD is listed) and click “submit”.
The following articles on Integrated Pest Management of SWD are accessible here:
"1-2-3" IPM Approach for Spotted Wing Drosophila Management
Monitoring Systems in place for
Brown-Marmorated-Stink-Bug-and-Spotted-Wing-Drosophila for 2014
Integrated Pest Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila with Emphasis in High
Tunnel Grown Fall Bearing Primocane Raspberries
Detecting larval infestations and insecticidal options for Spotted Wing Drosophila
Current distribution of the invasive Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB), in the US (updated: June 13, 2014)
The BMSB is an exotic pentatomid species native to Asia. Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension first found specimens in Allentown Pennsylvania, in 1996. BMSB is currently found in 42 US states. The following distribution map was prepared by Dr. Hannah Burrack, Department of Entomology, NC State University.
On June 10th, 2014, Dr. Don Johnson from University of Arkansas reported
larval infestations of SWD in raspberry fruits in Washington County,
Arkansas. Location is about 145 miles south of Springfield, MO. Farmers in
this area are adviced to deploy monitoring traps and start applying
insecticides against SWD to protect susceptible crops, in particular if fruits are
ripening within a 2-week period. If you would like to read the entire
article which also includes information about other insect pests in fruits,
click here: http://comp.uark.edu/~dtjohnso/AR_News_12_June_2014.pdf
PEST ALERT IN SOUTHWEST MISSOURI: FIRST SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CAPTURED BY MONITORING TRAPS
On June 6th, 2014, we received the report that the first Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) male has been captured by a monitoring trap deployed on a blueberry farm in the Webb City area. This finding means that farmers in the region are urged to start monitoring for this pest in their own orchards.
If you are interested in monitoring for SWD at your farm, free traps and bait (purchased using funds provided by a grant from the Missouri Department of Agriculture to the Lincoln University IPM program) are available. They can be mailed at no cost to you. Please contact Mr. Jacob Wilson at email@example.com or call (573-681-5591).
SHOULD I SPRAY INSECTICIDE AGAINST SWD AGAIN AFTER A RAINFALL?
Research has shown that the amount of rain that occurs right after the application of some of the main insecticides used against SWD affects the durability of the insecticide on the fruit. For example, Dr. Rufus Isaacs (entomologist at Michigan State University) and his team have documented that Malathion effectiveness decreases immediately one day after a rain greater than 0.5 inches; the effect was that SWD control was only around 20 percent of the control in another field not exposed to the rain. This means that Malathion’s efficacy was almost lost after 0.8 inches of rainfall. In their trials, after a 0.8 inch rainfall, Lannate 90SP kept nearly all of its effectiveness even after 7 days, whereas Mustang Max lost about 20% efficacy within 7 days after the rain event. In general, a 2-inch rain one day after the application will substantially reduce the effectiveness of most of the products.
Remember, the label is the law, so if it doesn't prohibit re-application a farmer can go back again in with a particular insecticide she/he may have applied before a rain event. Otherwise, she/he will need to switch products. Some products explicitly state that farmers need to wait a week or some other period between applications.
As an example, the label of Malathion 8F (Gowan, 79.5% active ingredient) has these comments for blueberries:
* The Maximum application rate is 1.25 pints of product per acre
* The maximum number of applications per year is three
* The minimum retreatment interval is 5 days
The take-home message is that if rainfall occurs after insecticide application, re-application is needed to maintain fruit protection, but check the product’s label.
If you are a commercial berry / grape producer, the 2014 Midwest Small Fruit and Grape Spray Guide (freely available as PDF in this URL: https://ag.purdue.edu/hla/Hort/Documents/ID-169.pdf ) lists the following products against SWD in blueberries: Brigade WSB (10WP), Danitol 2.4EC, Delegate 25WG, Entrust 2SC (organic), Entrust 80WP (organic), Imidan 70W, Lannate LV, Lannate SP, Malathion 8F, and Mustang Max 0.8EC.
No endorsement of products mentioned is intended nor is criticism implied of products not mentioned.
Monitoring systems in place in Missouri for the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) and Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) for 2014
The Lincoln University (LU) IPM Program in partnership with the University of Missouri IPM program is coordinating a monitoring system for Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii, starting in late May, 2014. To access the full article click here.
IPM is a comprehensive and environmentally-friendly approach to solving pest problems that rely on a combination of common sense preventive practices.
Examples include the use of resistant crop varieties, cultural practices such as sanitation, crop rotations, trap crops, and the creation of habitat for natural enemies and pollinators. Pest monitoring is a critical component of an IPM program. If needed, treatments are made using least-risk options to target the pest without negatively impacting beneficial arthropods and the environment.
The Lincoln University Cooperative Extension (LUCE) IPM Program aims at developing (through research) and promoting (through Extension) affordable alternative insect pest management strategies to combat insect pests of fruit and vegetables in Missouri. To access the LUCE IPM program website click here:
Dr. Jaime C. Pinero
Dr. Pinero received his Ph.D.in Entomology from the Univ. of Massachusetts--Amherst and a B.S. in Agronomy from the Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico. He now serves as an Assistant Professor/State IPM Specialist at Lincoln University Cooperative Extension & Research. His research interests focus on insect sensory ecology and behavior with an emphasis on Integrated Pest Management methods for improved production of fruits and vegetables.
CLICK HERE FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT DR. PINERO'S RESEARCH, EXTENSION AND TEACHING RESPONSIBILITIES AT LINCOLN UNIVERSITY....
Other Relevant SWD resources
Michigan State University:
http://www.ipm.msu.edu/invasive species/spotted wing drosophila
North Carolina State University:
Oregon State University:
North Central IPM Center
Other Relevant BMSB resources
Michigan State University:
http://ipm.msu.edu/invasive species/brown marmorated stink bug