First adult Spotted Wing Drosophila captured by a monitoring trap on May 27th, 2015.
By Dr. Jaime Piñero (Lincoln University IPM program) and Dr. Bruce Barrett (University of Missouri)
The first adult Spotted Wing Drosophila (a male) has been captured by a monitoring trap in the Jefferson City area on May 27th, 2015. This trap was hung from a mulberry tree that has ripening fruit. So, it’s time to set up monitoring traps for early crops!
Below is a summary of our 2014 experiences in terms of monitoring tools and an overview of the SWD monitoring approach for 2015.
2014 evaluation of commercial and home-made lures for SWD. From late July to late October 2014 the Lincoln University IPM program conducted a field study aimed at comparing the attractiveness of a new synthetic lure (trade name: SWD Pherocon, by Trece Inc.) versus that of the standard yeast / sugar bait (home-made lure) to male and female SWD. The study took place in an unsprayed elderberry plot at the Lincoln University Carver farm (Jefferson City, MO). Traps were deployed in pairs (n= 4), about 10 ft. apart, on fruiting plants. Traps were inspected once a week and all insects captured were taken to the lab for identification. Every week, the one-week old traps were replaced with traps having new baits / lures.
Key findings: As shown in the graphs above, the active dry yeast + sugar bait consistently out-competed the new commercial lure.
The table below summarizes captures across the entire season. It reveals that the standard bait was on average 4.8 and 20.3 times more attractive than the new lure, to males and females, respectively.
Monitoring for SWD in 2015. Farmers are encouraged to deploy a monitoring trap starting 3-4 weeks before berry ripening and throughout the harvest season. Place one monitoring trap baited with active dry yeast (1/2 tablespoon), sugar (2 tablespoons) and water (6 ounces) per acre. The trap needs to be hang on a plant, stake, or trellis 3–5 feet above the ground on the most shaded / cooler side of the plant canopy. Because SWD reproduces so quickly under warm weather conditions, the first SWD trapping data are vital to activate pest management programs to prevent rapid population increases and potential infestations on a farm.
For 2015, the Lincoln University and the University of Missouri IPM programs will be monitoring the presence and abundance of SWD in selected locations throughout Missouri. Information will be posted weekly at the MU IPM Pest Monitoring Network website: http://ipm.missouri.edu/pestmonitoring. This year, the SWD monitoring system will be set so that an alert will be sent to farmers / subscribers as soon as the first SWD is detected in traps on a given region. But subsequent captures in the same region won’t result in new alerts.
Lincoln University (LU) Cooperative Extension and Research is hosting the Third Alternative Agriculture field day on Wednesday, June 3rd, 2015, from 1:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m. This field will be held at the LU Busby Organic Research farm located in Jefferson City, MO. The Busby Research Farm comprises 280 acres of land that has been certified for organic production through National and International Organic Certifiers. Lincoln University has committed this farm for organic and integrated systems research. Current research projects include large and small ruminant livestock, aquaculture, vegetables, small fruits, biomass, composting, native plants, sustainable / organic pest management, biochar, soils, grazing, and forage production/utilization.
This year, prior to the field day, three workshops will be conducted from 9 a.m. to 12 p.m.: (1) Internal Parasites of Sheep, Goats and Cattle (2) Organic Vegetable Production, and (3) Organic Pest Management. For more information, please see below the flier of the field day.
Updated list of 20 non-crop host plants of Spotted Wing Drosophila made available.
An updated list of 20 non-crop host plants of Spotted Wing Drosophila has been published by researchers from Michigan State University, Cornell University, and Agriculture Agri-Food Canada. Commercial and backyard fruit growers and field advisors can learn which plants can serve as alternate egg-laying sites for SWD. This list of noncommercial fruits was developed from multiyear sampling to determine likely non-crop hosts for SWD larvae. To access the publication in PDF click the picture below:
Control of SWD has proven to be a challenge for organic as well as conventional growers. Learn the key steps that farmers can take to successfully manage this invasive pest using organic methods. Access this presentation (slides in pdf) by clicking the cover slide below:
A webinar on organic management of SWD was made available in 2014 in eXtension.org. This webinar covers SWD biology and management as well as the unique challenges and approaches that are relevant for organic producers. The presenters (Dr. Vaughn Walton of Oregon State University and Dr. Hannah Burrack of North Carolina State University) provide the latest research-based information on what is known about its life-cycle and ability to survive in a range of climates; the current knowledge of biological and cultural controls that can be employed to reduce the pressure from SWD; and the efficacy of certified organic approaches for its control. Dr. Ruffus Isaacs (Michigan State University) also contributed with some slides.
UPDATE ON SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA
Jaime Piñero – Lincoln University IPM program
Since late May, 2014, the Lincoln University (LU) IPM program, working in partnership with MU Extension, has been monitoring weekly the presence and abundance of Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in 25 locations throughout Missouri. SWD is a serious new invasive pest that attacks small fruit crops, some stone fruits (cherry, nectarine, peach), high tunnel tomatoes, strawberry, and wild hosts (including pokeweed, autumn olive, crabapple, nightshade, mulberry, and wild grape). Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, and elderberry are at the greatest risk.
The seasonal activity of SWD (estimated by trap captures and presented as the mean number of males and females per trap per day) is shown below for three selected locations: Osceola (Southwest MO), Columbia (Central MO), and St. Peters (East-Central MO).
Osceola: One SWD trap was deployed at a cherry tree in mid June, and the first SWD captures took place on July 14th, coinciding with the ripening period of the cherry fruit. As soon as the tree was no longer fruiting, the trap was relocated onto a nearby blackberry patch. SWD captures have been increasing steadily, reaching a seasonal peak of about 12 females per trap per day. Insecticides should have been applied from the moment the first SWD were captured; however, the farmer was not interested in protecting the cherries or the blackberries.
Columbia: The SWD monitoring trap was placed on June 3rd in a commercial blackberry orchard. The first SWD captures were recorded a month later, on July 8th. The farmer was advised to spray an insecticide as soon as the first fruit was changing color. It seems that the first insecticide was applied a little later than expected because a fruit sampling conducted by the LU IPM program revealed infestations by SWD on the first-ripening blackberries. Numbers of SWD have been declining since July 15th to about 4 female SWD per trap per day. Nevertheless, the farmer needs to apply insecticides on a timely manner and with good coverage to achieve the best control possible.
Examples provided above indicate that SWD populations are increasing in Missouri, so farmers who grow fall-bearing raspberries need to monitor for this pest and apply insecticides, as this is the only current way of managing this pest. Timing and good coverage are key components of an IPM program against SWD. Insecticide sprays need to be in place prior to oviposition (egg laying), and coverage needs to be thorough as the adults often hide in the denser portions of the canopy. High pressure and spray volume will be needed to reach these difficult-to-reach spots and provide thorough coverage. Even the best of the insecticides will not consistently last more than 7 days so, at a minimum, weekly applications are needed. Producers must rotate among insecticides with different modes of action to prevent/delay resistance.
2014 MISSOURI ORGANIC FARM TOURS – JAMESTOWN & OSCEOLA
August 7th (Thursday) 4:30 – 6:30 PM:
Happy Hollow Farm: 17199 Happy Hollow Road, Jamestown, MO 65046*.
Please RSVP Liz Graznak at Lizgraznak@happyhollowfarm-mo.com or call (660) 849-2430.
August 8th (Friday) 5:00 – 7:30 pm:
Bear Creek Farms: 12595 NE 50 RD, Osceola, MO 64776**.
Please RSVP Robbins Hail at email@example.com or call (417) 282-5894.
AGENDA (same for each farm tour):
* Map to Happy Hollow Farm available at http://www.happyhollowfarm-mo.com/contact-links
**Directions to Bear Creek Farms:
* Highway 13 to TT Hwy just south of Osceola (across from Wheeler Livestock Auction) * Turn east on TT and go approximately 5 miles to gravel road 1131.
* Turn north (left) and go about 1 mile to T intersection. Turn east (left) and go about 2 miles to Bear Creek Farms.
Sponsored by Bear Creek Farms and Happy Hollow Farms, the Lincoln University Integrated Pest Management program, the Ceres Trust, and the Missouri Organic Association
NEW MISSOURI FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCERS SURVEY!
If you produce commercially fruits and/or vegetables in the field / high tunnel / greenhouse, the Lincoln University IPM program needs your help. We are trying to address important needs for extension in Missouri through an online survey funded by an Extension IPM grant. You can access the survey here.
Please help us understand your fruit and vegetable production by answering the following questions. Your responses are confidential. Survey responses will not be reported or identified individually but will be combined with all responses and reported in aggregate. The survey will be available for only 2 weeks, so your input is greatly appreciated.
The purposes of the survey are to: (1) learn about the diverse farming practices used in the state to produce fruits and vegetables, (2) determine what are the biggest challenges faced by farmers in their production systems, (3) identify the most significant pests that can cause economic damage in the various production systems, and (4) learn about farmer’s use of IPM, IPM needs, and ways in which farmers prefer to receive IPM information from extension and research personnel.
If you have questions about the survey, please direct them to Jaime Pinero at firstname.lastname@example.org, 573-681-5522.
If you know anyone that you think should take this survey, please forward the link to those people.
I GOT SWD IN MY MONITORING TRAPS, SHOULD I SPRAY MY CROP RIGHT AWAY?
There is now consensus among researchers that if monitoring traps detect the presence of SWD, commercial producers of highly susceptible small fruit crops should start spraying insecticide against SWD as soon as the first fruit become susceptible (i.e., color change) about about 2 to 3 weeks before cherry or berry harvest, depending on weather. A second application may be needed 7 to 10 days later. In the case of indeterminate fruiting berries such as raspberries or strawberries, sprays might need to be repeated to keep SWD populations low during summer and fall. Continue to use monitoring traps to help you decide if and when additional sprays might be needed. Be sure to wait the interval specified on the pesticide label (= Pre-Harvest Interval or PHI) before harvesting fruit.
IMPORTANT: Timing and good coverage are key components of an IPM program against SWD. Insecticide sprays need to be in place prior to oviposition (egg laying), and coverage needs to be thorough as the adults often hide in the denser portions of the canopy. So, high pressure and spray volume will be needed to reach these difficult-to-reach spots and provide thorough coverage. Even the best of the insecticides will not consistently last more than 7 days so, at a minimum, weekly applications are needed. Producers must rotate among insecticides with different modes of action (IRAC Group) to prevent/delay resistance. With a limited number of modes of action available, we cannot afford to lose the effectiveness of materials to insecticide resistance.
SWD DETECTED IN 14 MISSOURI COUNTIES. As of 07/07/14, SWD has already been detected in 15 out of the 25 locations where Lincoln University and Univ. of Missouri Extension staff are monitoring for this pest. Dr. Don Johnson, Professor and Entomologist at the Univ. of Arkansas, has seen an increase in SWD egg-laying in blackberry this week and as a result has alerted farmers about the need to spray insecticides. To access the newest Issue of AR Fruit and Nut News click here.
The following map shows the current distribution of SWD in Missouri (prepared by Dr. Joe LaForest, University of Georgia):
IPM is a comprehensive and environmentally-friendly approach to solving pest problems that rely on a combination of common sense preventive practices. Examples include the use of resistant crop varieties, cultural practices such as sanitation, crop rotations, trap crops, and the creation of habitat for natural enemies and pollinators. Pest monitoring is a critical component of an IPM program. If needed, treatments are made using least-risk options to target the pest without negatively impacting beneficial arthropods and the environment.
The Lincoln University Cooperative Extension (LUCE) IPM Program aims at developing (through research) and promoting (through Extension) affordable alternative insect pest management strategies to combat insect pests of fruit and vegetables in Missouri. To access the LUCE IPM program website click here:
Dr. Jaime C. Pinero
Dr. Pinero received his Ph.D.in Entomology from the Univ. of Massachusetts--Amherst and a B.S. in Agronomy from the Universidad Veracruzana, Veracruz, Mexico. He now serves as an Assistant Professor/State IPM Specialist at Lincoln University Cooperative Extension & Research. His research interests focus on insect sensory ecology and behavior with an emphasis on Integrated Pest Management methods for improved production of fruits and vegetables.
CLICK HERE FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT DR. PINERO'S RESEARCH, EXTENSION AND TEACHING RESPONSIBILITIES AT LINCOLN UNIVERSITY....
IPM Extension Technician
Other Relevant SWD resources
Michigan State University:
http://www.ipm.msu.edu/invasive species/spotted wing drosophila
North Carolina State University:
Oregon State University:
North Central IPM Center
Other Relevant BMSB resources
Michigan State University:
http://ipm.msu.edu/invasive species/brown marmorated stink bug