UPDATE ON SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA
Jaime Piñero – Lincoln University IPM program
Since late May, 2014, the Lincoln University (LU) IPM program, working in partnership with MU Extension, has been monitoring weekly the presence and abundance of Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD) in 25 locations throughout Missouri. SWD is a serious new invasive pest that attacks small fruit crops, some stone fruits (cherry, nectarine, peach), high tunnel tomatoes, strawberry, and wild hosts (including pokeweed, autumn olive, crabapple, nightshade, mulberry, and wild grape). Raspberries, blackberries, blueberries, and elderberry are at the greatest risk.
The seasonal activity of SWD (estimated by trap captures and presented as the mean number of males and females per trap per day) is shown below for three selected locations: Osceola (Southwest MO), Columbia (Central MO), and St. Peters (East-Central MO).
Osceola: One SWD trap was deployed at a cherry tree in mid June, and the first SWD captures took place on July 14th, coinciding with the ripening period of the cherry fruit. As soon as the tree was no longer fruiting, the trap was relocated onto a nearby blackberry patch. SWD captures have been increasing steadily, reaching a seasonal peak of about 12 females per trap per day. Insecticides should have been applied from the moment the first SWD were captured; however, the farmer was not interested in protecting the cherries or the blackberries.
Columbia: The SWD monitoring trap was placed on June 3rd in a commercial blackberry orchard. The first SWD captures were recorded a month later, on July 8th. The farmer was advised to spray an insecticide as soon as the first fruit was changing color. It seems that the first insecticide was applied a little later than expected because a fruit sampling conducted by the LU IPM program revealed infestations by SWD on the first-ripening blackberries. Numbers of SWD have been declining since July 15th to about 4 female SWD per trap per day. Nevertheless, the farmer needs to apply insecticides on a timely manner and with good coverage to achieve the best control possible.
Examples provided above indicate that SWD populations are increasing in Missouri, so farmers who grow fall-bearing raspberries need to monitor for this pest and apply insecticides, as this is the only current way of managing this pest. Timing and good coverage are key components of an IPM program against SWD. Insecticide sprays need to be in place prior to oviposition (egg laying), and coverage needs to be thorough as the adults often hide in the denser portions of the canopy. High pressure and spray volume will be needed to reach these difficult-to-reach spots and provide thorough coverage. Even the best of the insecticides will not consistently last more than 7 days so, at a minimum, weekly applications are needed. Producers must rotate among insecticides with different modes of action to prevent/delay resistance.
2014 MISSOURI ORGANIC FARM TOURS – JAMESTOWN & OSCEOLA
August 7th (Thursday) 4:30 – 6:30 PM:
Happy Hollow Farm: 17199 Happy Hollow Road, Jamestown, MO 65046*.
Please RSVP Liz Graznak at Lizgraznak@happyhollowfarm-mo.com or call (660) 849-2430.
August 8th (Friday) 5:00 – 7:30 pm:
Bear Creek Farms: 12595 NE 50 RD, Osceola, MO 64776**.
Please RSVP Robbins Hail at email@example.com or call (417) 282-5894.
AGENDA (same for each farm tour):
* Map to Happy Hollow Farm available at http://www.happyhollowfarm-mo.com/contact-links
**Directions to Bear Creek Farms:
* Highway 13 to TT Hwy just south of Osceola (across from Wheeler Livestock Auction) * Turn east on TT and go approximately 5 miles to gravel road 1131.
* Turn north (left) and go about 1 mile to T intersection. Turn east (left) and go about 2 miles to Bear Creek Farms.
Sponsored by Bear Creek Farms and Happy Hollow Farms, the Lincoln University Integrated Pest Management program, the Ceres Trust, and the Missouri Organic Association
NEW MISSOURI FRUIT AND VEGETABLE PRODUCERS SURVEY!
If you produce commercially fruits and/or vegetables in the field / high tunnel / greenhouse, the Lincoln University IPM program needs your help. We are trying to address important needs for extension in Missouri through an online survey funded by an Extension IPM grant. You can access the survey here.
Please help us understand your fruit and vegetable production by answering the following questions. Your responses are confidential. Survey responses will not be reported or identified individually but will be combined with all responses and reported in aggregate. The survey will be available for only 2 weeks, so your input is greatly appreciated.
The purposes of the survey are to: (1) learn about the diverse farming practices used in the state to produce fruits and vegetables, (2) determine what are the biggest challenges faced by farmers in their production systems, (3) identify the most significant pests that can cause economic damage in the various production systems, and (4) learn about farmer’s use of IPM, IPM needs, and ways in which farmers prefer to receive IPM information from extension and research personnel.
If you have questions about the survey, please direct them to Jaime Pinero at firstname.lastname@example.org, 573-681-5522.
If you know anyone that you think should take this survey, please forward the link to those people.
I GOT SWD IN MY MONITORING TRAPS, SHOULD I SPRAY MY CROP RIGHT AWAY?
There is now consensus among researchers that if monitoring traps detect the presence of SWD, commercial producers of highly susceptible small fruit crops should start spraying insecticide against SWD as soon as the first fruit become susceptible (i.e., color change) about about 2 to 3 weeks before cherry or berry harvest, depending on weather. A second application may be needed 7 to 10 days later. In the case of indeterminate fruiting berries such as raspberries or strawberries, sprays might need to be repeated to keep SWD populations low during summer and fall. Continue to use monitoring traps to help you decide if and when additional sprays might be needed. Be sure to wait the interval specified on the pesticide label (= Pre-Harvest Interval or PHI) before harvesting fruit.
IMPORTANT: Timing and good coverage are key components of an IPM program against SWD. Insecticide sprays need to be in place prior to oviposition (egg laying), and coverage needs to be thorough as the adults often hide in the denser portions of the canopy. So, high pressure and spray volume will be needed to reach these difficult-to-reach spots and provide thorough coverage. Even the best of the insecticides will not consistently last more than 7 days so, at a minimum, weekly applications are needed. Producers must rotate among insecticides with different modes of action (IRAC Group) to prevent/delay resistance. With a limited number of modes of action available, we cannot afford to lose the effectiveness of materials to insecticide resistance.
SWD DETECTED IN 14 MISSOURI COUNTIES. As of 07/07/14, SWD has already been detected in 15 out of the 25 locations where Lincoln University and Univ. of Missouri Extension staff are monitoring for this pest. Dr. Don Johnson, Professor and Entomologist at the Univ. of Arkansas, has seen an increase in SWD egg-laying in blackberry this week and as a result has alerted farmers about the need to spray insecticides. To access the newest Issue of AR Fruit and Nut News click here.
The following map shows the current distribution of SWD in Missouri (prepared by Dr. Joe LaForest, University of Georgia):
SWD FOUND IN WEST CENTRAL MO. On June 26th, one female SWD was captured by a trap deployed on blackberries in the Higginsville area. This is the fourth location in MO where SWD has been detected. It is time to deploy monitoring traps!
HOME-OWNER INSECTICIDAL OPTIONS FOR SWD. Cornell University has put together a nice table listing the insecticides (pages 3-5 in that article) that home-owners can use to control SWD in backyard gardens. Access the table by clicking here.
PEST ALERT IN CENTRAL MISSOURI: SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA CAPTURED BY MONITORING TRAPS
On June 23rd, 2014, five females and one male SWD were retrieved from a monitoring trap deployed in Marshall, MO. Small fruit farmers in this region are advised to monitor for this pest in their own orchards and to start protecting their fruit with an insecticide if susceptible fruits are available. Monitoring, pest ID, and timely application of insecticides are key components of an Integrated Pest Management program for this invasive vinegar fly. If you are interested in monitoring for SWD at your farm, free traps and bait (purchased using funds provided by a grant from the Missouri Department of Agriculture to the Lincoln University IPM program) are available. They can be mailed at no cost to you. Please contact Mr. Jacob Wilson at: email@example.com or call (573-681-5591).
On June 17th, 2 male and 1 female SWD were detected in a yeast-baited monitoring trap in Hillsboro, MO. The trap was deployed on a fruiting mulberry tree. Fruit samples were taken and larval infestations that can be attributed to SWD were found. This is the first report of larval infestations in any fruit in Missouri for the 2014 growing season.
The above information and additional SWD trap-capture data are available at the Univ. of Missouri IPM Pest Monitoring Network.
RECEIVE SWD E-MAIL ALERTS: If you would like to receive e-mail alerts whenever SWD is found in your region, please go to the above link . Then, click on the tab “Subscribe E-mail Alerts”, type your name and e-mail address and select the pests (SWD is listed) and click “submit”.
The following articles on Integrated Pest Management of SWD are accessible here:
"1-2-3" IPM Approach for Spotted Wing Drosophila Management
Monitoring Systems in place for
Brown-Marmorated-Stink-Bug-and-Spotted-Wing-Drosophila for 2014
Integrated Pest Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila with Emphasis in High
Tunnel Grown Fall Bearing Primocane Raspberries
Detecting larval infestations and insecticidal options for Spotted Wing Drosophila